The result indicated that this model has a certain rationality. The gaps between the two targets could be used to measure the residual velocities of the projectiles perforating the test targets. Two key observations can be made when comparing the two images. Calculation method on crater depth of projectile penetrating into concrete vertically. We chose to use this material due to its isotropic, homogeneous nature. It is well known that silks exhibit a wide range of mechanical properties, many of which are significantly better than most man-made materials. This ignores the effects of speed and impact on the energetics of surface creation.
The high-speed experiments show a series of stress waves created by the impact of the arrow propagating through the gelatin. Shear plugging and perforation of ductile circular plates struck by a blunt projectile. This deformation can dissipate energy and help blunt crack growth [ 12 ]. Check Access Check Access. Functional consequences of tooth design: If you do not already have an account you will need to register here. Arrows in both camera views were backlit for ease of digitizing during data analysis.
Dynamic mechanical behavior of multilayer graphene via supersonic projectile penetration | Science
View at Google Scholar J. Kinetic energy correlates significantly with both penetration depth and tear length, indicating that KE is a good indicator of the energy available for creating surface area within the material and allowing deeper penetration. It is important to note that we have only explored a very narrow range of size and speed compared to the biological realm. In a high-velocity phase, resistance continuously decreases because of the main role of velocity in early stage; as nose shape coefficient becomes dominant, resistance increases. The governing equations of the three stages are expressed as follows:
An empirical equation for penetration depth of ogive-nose projectiles into concrete targets. The effect of stress wave speed on fracture growth and deformation has been studied in a number of systems [ 10 , 34 ], but the consequences for biological puncture systems have not yet been explored. A calibration cube was used before each set of tests to ensure that the two cameras were set perpendicular to each other and to the flight path of the arrow. Normal impact of ogive nosed projectiles on thin plates. The influence of food material properties on temporal and spatial variation in jaw kinematic patterns in the primate Cebus. World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology, Mitsubishi Heavy Industries Date: